Titration-Injection microPump TIP2k

TIP2k: the Titration-Injection microPump.

From step titration to ramp injection: Uncoupling by FCCP with TIP2k. MiPNet04.05. download pdf

Fully supported by the O2k-Core and control of the TIP2k by the software DatLab: The TIP2k can be programmed for multiple titrations and continuous injections. As an alternative to traditional step titration, the TIP offers the new option of ramp injection, providing maximum resolution of the concentration dependence of oxygen flux. This is illustrated by the recording of cellular respiratory flux as a function of a continuous increase of uncoupler (FCCP) concentration.



Programmable, automatic titration regimes, with titration volumes of 0.05 to 250 µl, variable titration intervals and duration of titration pulses.


  • Steady-state injection: Operation at quasi steady-states by continuous injection of substrates at limiting rates of consumption, providing new flexibility in experimental design by combining the technical advantages of closed and open systems. Programmable injection flows: 0.01 to 25 µl.s-1.
  • Ramp injection (MiPNet04.05, see above): Ramp increase of effector concentrations by "continuous titration".
  • DatLab software for feedback control by the the TIP2k: for steady-state respirometry at selected oxygen levels and pH-stat applications.


  • Gnaiger E (2008) Polarographic oxygen sensors, the oxygraph and high-resolution respirometry to assess mitochondrial function. In: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Drug-Induced Toxicity (Dykens JA, Will Y, eds) John Wiley: 327-352. >>abstract
  • Gnaiger E (2001) Bioenergetics at low oxygen: dependence of respiration and phosphorylation on oxygen and adenosine diphosphate supply. Respir Physiol 128: 277-297. >>abstract
  • Gnaiger E, Méndez G, Hand SC (2000) High phosphorylation efficiency and depression of uncoupled respiration in mitochondria under hypoxia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 11080-11085. >>abstract

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OROBOROS High-Resolution Respirometry