The production of the OROBOROS Oxygraph was preceeded by instrumental development of the Twin-Flow Microrespirometer (Gnaiger 1983) for simultaneous applications with microcalorimetry in an open-flow system (right). This Twin-Flow Microrespirometer was distributed on a small scale, but particularly applied in international cooperations (e.g. Hand SC, Gnaiger E, 1988. Anaerobic dormancy quantified in Artemia embryos: A calorimetric test of the control mechanism. Science 239: 1425-1427). For further references, see Twin-Flow Respirometry.
In 1989, the prototype of the Oxygraph was developed in the frame of a FWF Project "Thermodynamics and respiratory control in aerobic and anoxic mitochondria" (E. Gnaiger, principal investigator).
In 1992, the first series of the OROBOROS® Oxygraph was completed (initially "Cyclobios Oxygraph" with Paar; Graz).
In 1994, OROBOROS® (founded by Erich Gnaiger) took over the world-wide distibution of the Oxygraph. With completion of the development of DatLab 2 in cooperation with Dr. Michael Reck, the term "high-resolution respirometry" was coined. About 60 Oxygraphs were produced until 1998 and distributed in 17 countries.
In 1997 OROBOROS released DatLab 2, setting a new standard in software-supported high-resolution respirometry.
In 2000, OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS Corporation (GmbH - Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung) was founded.
In 2001, Philipp Gradl (WGT Elektronik; Kolsass) started as the competent partner for development and production of the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k. Lukas Gradl (ssn - software security networks; Innsbruck) took over the software development, generating the refined Windows(TM) version of DatLab 3. All developments and production of the Oxygraph-2k takes place within 20 km of Innsbruck.
As a result of this successful cooperation, 33 instruments of the Oxygraph-2k (Series A) were produced and delivered into 13 countries in 2002/2003.
In August 2003, the first of 100 instruments of Series B were completed, and applied in a series of workshops on high-resolution respirometry. The O2k Series B provides the basis for integration of the Titration-Injection microPump (TIP-2k) and modular expansion to the multi-sensor O2k MiP-Net-Analyzer.
2004: 10 years OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS - MiPNet Meeting in September 2004.
A major development was completed in 2004, to improve the design of the polarographic oxygen sensor (OROBoPOS), which is available since November 2004.
Developments of the MultiSensor O2k-MiPNetAnalyzer benefit from user innovation. Based on the expertise and cooperation within MiP-Net, various electrochemical sensors (NO, ion selective electrodes such as pH, TPP, Ca2+, K+) and optical sensors (light scattering, fluorescence probes), can be integrated into the Oxygraph-2k and supported by the multichannel-software DatLab 4 (Windows™). Since December 2004, DatLab 4 and the MultiSensor O2k-MiPNetAnalyzer are available, including the Titration-Injection microPump TIP-2k and input channels for high-power amplification of ion-selective electrodes. Download pdf.
2006: In June 2006, the O2k #100 was sold (Series B).
2007: Since January 2007, the OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS Corporation (GmbH) replaced the previous private company in the world-wide distribution and service of the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k and accessories. VAT-No.: ATU 49093608. In May 2007, the first O2k of Series C was delivered.
2009: OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS celebrated the 50th International Course on High-Resolution Respirometry and cover-to-cover the 1st O2k-MultiSensor Workshop (April 2009, Schröcken, Vorarlberg, Austria). In February 2009, the O2k #200 was sold (Series C). The new Series D was compleded and delivered since November 2009.
2010: Bioblast wiki: Together with MitoPedia, OroboPedia was started by OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS on 2010-07-12 as a glossary and index to our website, in an attempt to help the users finding particular topics more quickly, and to provide short definitions of terms, abbreviations and symbols frequently used in the context of high-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial physiology.
2011: O2k-Series E. Launch of the K-Regio project 'MitoCom Tyrol' on 2011-05-01.
2012: Concept of the O2k-Core and O2k-Catalogue OROBOROS - Jan 2012. First O2k-Fluorescence Workshop March 2012. First prize HOUSKA Award for 'Light in the Powerhouse of the Cells' - Apr 2012.
Bioblast 2012: Conference on Mitochondrial Competence - Dec 2012.
International O2k Courses and Workshops - History
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1994 - 2000
1983 - 1993