What is Controlling Life? BioThermoKinetics 1994


Gnaiger E, Gellerich FN, Wyss M, eds. (1994) What is Controlling Life? 50 Years after Erwin Schrödinger's What is Life? Modern Trends in BioThermoKinetics 3. Innsbruck Univ. Press, Innsbruck: 336 pp.  ISBN 3-901249-17-6


BioThermoKinetics - BTK


Erwin Schrödinger's 'What is Life?' is one of the most influential books of the last century in the biological sciences. It continues to provoke discussions and stimulate interdisciplinary developments in biophysics. Starting with reflections on Schrödinger's famous account of negative entropy in living systems, an international group of scientists presents the latest advancements on the dynamics and control of metabolic processes. This volume of Modern Trends in BioThermoKinetics develops for the first time the explicit link between thermodynamics, metabolic control, bioenergetics and clinical applications.


CONTENTS: Full Papers


Contents including titles of abstracts: download pdf

* OROBOROS Oxygraph applications



R. Margreiter. Innsbruck download pdf  13


Trends in Bioenergetics. An Introduction

    E. Gnaiger, F.N. Gellerich. Innsbruck download pdf  14


"German Ideology" as seen by Erwin Schrödinger in Letters

to Hans Thirring. From Their Correspondence (1946-1949)

    G. Oberkofler, P. Goller. Innsbruck download pdf  19



                                                   Part 1

                                 What is Negative Entropy?

                        From World Views to Bioenergetics


Erwin Schrödinger's World View. The Role of Physics and

Biology in his Philosophical System

    J. Götschl. Graz download pdf  23

Science, Art and Revelation

    J. Wagensberg. Barcelona download pdf  32

Negentropy and Historical Arrow of Time - Thermodynamical and Informational Aspects of the Darwinian Revolution

    G.F. Azzone. Padova download pdf  38

Negative Entropy: Another Approach

    C.P. Lantos. Buenos Aires download pdf  45

Schrödinger's What is Life?: The Biophysical Legacy 50 Years Later

    G.R. Welch. New Orleans download pdf  48

What is (Schrödinger's) Negentropy?

    M.-W. Ho. London download pdf  50

Negative Entropy for Living Systems. Controversy between

Nobel Laureates Schrödinger, Pauling and Perutz

    E. Gnaiger. Innsbruck download pdf  62

A Paradigm for Energy Balance in Muscle Function

    M.J. Kushmerick. Seattle download pdf  71

A Controlled Chaotic Attractor Controls Life

    D. Lloyd. Cardiff download pdf  77

Disease as Instability, Error and Entropy

    G.F. Azzone. Padova download pdf  81



  Part 2

     Control and Regulation: Theory, Models, and Experi­ment


The Macro- and Microworld of Control Theory

    B.N. Kholodenko, H.V. Westerhoff, M. Cascante. Moscow, Amsterdam, Barcelona 88

How Should we Quantify Metabolic Regulation?

    J.-H.S. Hofmeyr, A. Cornish-Bowden. Stellenbosch, Marseille 91

Control and Regulation: The Best of Both Worlds

    H.V. Westerhoff, P.R. Jensen, J.M. Rohwer, B.N. Kholo­denko. Amsterdam, Lyngby, Moscow 95

Evolutionary Optimization of Enzymes on the Basis of

Kinetic and Thermodynamic Principles

    R. Heinrich, E. Klipp, A. Stephani, T. Wilhelm, Berlin 99

Detecting Elementary Modes of Functioning in Metabolic Networks

    S. Schuster, C. Hilgetag, D.A. Fell. Berlin, Oxford 103



                                                   Part 3

                  Coupling and Mechanisms in the Regulation

                            of Electron, ATP and Ion Fluxes


Leaks and Slips during Mitochondrial Electron Trans­fer

    S. Luvisetto, M. Canton, I. Schmehl, G.F. Azzone. Padova 122

Experimental Discrimination between Proton Leak

and Redox Slip during Mitochondrial Electron Transport

    M.D. Brand, L.-F. Chien, P.H. Diolez. Cambridge, Bordeaux 125

Permeability of the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane and Respiration

    M. Canton, S. Luvisetto, I. Schmehl, G.F. Azzone. Padova 129

The Uncoupling Mechanism of the Anesthetic Bupivacaine

    I. Schmehl, M. Canton, S. Luvisetto, G.F. Azzone. Padova 133

Influence of the Mechanism of Change in ATP Synthase-ATPase. Stoichiometry on the Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation in situ

    X. Leverve, E. Fontaine, P. Espié, C. Keriel, B. Guérin, M. Rigoulet. Grenoble, Bordeaux 137

ATP Synthesis in Permeabilized Cells: Assessment of the

ATP/O Ratios In Situ

    R. Ouhabi, M. Boue-Grabot, J.-P. Mazat. Bordeaux 141

Permeabilized Spheroplasts as a Tool for Studying the Mechanistic Stoichiometry of Yeast Oxidative Phosphory­la­tion

    V. Fitton, R. Ouhabi, B. Guérin, M. Rigoulet. Bordeaux 145

Investigations upon the Effect of Monovalent Cations on

Oxidative Phosphorylation in Yeast Mitochondria

    S. Manon, X. Roucou, M. Guérin. Bordeaux 150

Can Mitochondria Sequester Calcium from Physiological

Calcium Pulses?

    G. Sparagna, K.K. Gunter, S.-S. Sheu, T.E. Gunter. Rochester 154

Mitochondrial Calcium Spiking: The Physiological Face of

Permeability Transition?

    F. Ichas, L.S. Jouaville, S.S. Sidash, J.-P. Mazat,

E.L. Holmuhamedov. Bordeaux, Pushchino, Kalamazoo 159

Developmental regulation of Na+,K+- and Ca2+-ATPases

in muscle

    M.J. Dauncey, T. Clausen, A.P. Harrison. Cambridge, Århus 163

What is controlling the cell membrane potential?

    J. Siegenbeek van Heukelom et al. Amsterdam, Moscow 169



                                                   Part 4

           The Microenvironment of Mitochondria and Cells:

                   Diffusion Gradients, Shuttles and Signals


ADP Diffusion Gradients and Metabolic Oscillatory Signals

to Mitochondria in Heart and Liver Cells

    V.A. Saks, E.V. Vasilyeva, Z.A. Khuchua, Y.O. Belikova, M.K. Aliev, T. Kesvatera, T. Tiivel, K. Anflous, R. Ventura-Clapier, Ch. Keriel, E. Fontaine, X. Leverve. Tallinn, Moscow, Paris, Grenoble 178

Effect of Macromolecules on ADP-Transport into Mitochondria

    F.N. Gellerich, F.D. Laterveer, E. Gnaiger, K. Nicolay. Utrecht, Innsbruck download pdf  181*

Macromolecules Increase the Channeling of ADP from Mitochondrially Associated Hexokinase to the Mitochondrial Matrix

    F.D. Laterveer, F.N. Gellerich, E. Gnaiger, K. Nicolay. Utrecht, Innsbruck download pdf  186*

How does Oxygen Pressure Control Oxygen Flux in Isolated Mitochondria? A Methodological Approach by High-Resolution Respirometry and Digital Data Analysis

    G. Méndez, E. Gnaiger. Innsbruck, Buenos Aires download pdf  191*

Determination of Creatine Kinase Fluxes with Purified Creatine Kinase and Isolated Mitochondria using 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    S. Soboll, A. Conrad, M. Gruwel. Düsseldorf 195

Oscillations of Intracellular pH or High Energy Phosphate Content Cannot be Detected by Gated NMR during the Cardiac Cycle of an Isovolumic Perfused Rat Heart

    J.A. Hoerter, B. Gillet, P. Mateo, P. Lechene, J.-C. Beloeil. Chatenay Malabry, Gifs/Yvette 199



                                                  Part 5

                               The Impact of Bioenergetics

   on Cellular, Physiological and Biotechnological Processes


Chemical Forces in the Cell: Calculations for the ATP System

    E. Gnaiger, M. Wyss. Innsbruck download pdf  207

The Flow-Force Relation of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Human Forearm Muscle is Sigmoidal

    J.A.L. Jeneson, S.A. Jubrias, M.J. Kushmerick. Utrecht, Seattle 213

Muscular Contraction, Dissipation and Schrödinger's Negative Entropy

    J. Mejsnar, F. Marsík. Praha 215

Modelling of Oxidative Phosphorylation in E. coli

    P.R. Jensen, J.M. Rohwer, O. Michelsen, H.V. Westerhoff. Lyngby, Amsterdam 218

Do Oscillations Control the Bacterial Cell Cycle?

    I. Fishov. Beer-Sheva 221

A Thermochemical Study of the Production of Lactate by Glutaminolysis and Glycolysis in Mouse Macrophage Hybridoma Cells

    R.B. Kemp, S. Hoare, M. Schmalfeldt, C.M.C. Bridge, P.M. Evans, E. Gnaiger. Aberystwyth, Innsbruck download pdf  226

Catabolic Capacity of Carbon- or Nitrogen-Starved Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    C. Larsson, A. Nilsson, L Gustafsson. Göteborg 232

Energy Allocation and Material Flux in Fish Hepatocytes under Stress

    G. Krumschnabel, W. Wieser. Innsbruck 238

Carbon Flux in Lysine Producing Strain Corynebacterium glutamicum MH20-22B: Analysis by 13C-NMR of Amino Acids and Metabolite Balancing

    A. Marx, A.A. de Graaf, W. Wiechert, L. Eggeling, H. Sahm. Jülich 240

Remarks on Biocalorimetry and Biothermodynamics Aimed at Characterization of the Physiological State

    B. Zentgraf. Furtwangen 244



                                                  Part 6

                               The Impact of Bioenergetics

                      on Clinical and Pathologi­cal Problems


The Permeability Transition Pore. Pathophysiology of a Cyclosporin A-sensitive Mitochondrial Channel

    V. Petronilli, A. Nicolli, P. Costantini, R. Colonna, P. Bernardi. Padova 259

Mitochondrial Function in the Atrial Appendage of the Human Heart. Characterization by High-Resolution Respirometry

    F.N. Gellerich, R. Steinlechner, M. Wyss, T. Eberl, L.C. Müller, D. Skladal, W. Sperl, O. Dapunt, R. Margreiter, E. Gnaiger. Innsbruck download pdf  263*

Preservation of Mitochondrial Functions in Human Skeletal Muscle during Storage in High Energy Preservation Solution (HEPS)

    D. Skladal, W. Sperl, R. Schranzhofer, M. Krismer, E. Gnaiger, R. Margreiter, F.N. Gellerich. Innsbruck download pdf  268*

Application of Control Analysis to the Study of Metabolic Diseases in Mitochondria. Metabolic Expression of Mitochondrial DNA Mutations

    J.-P. Mazat, T. Letellier, M. Malgat, S. Jouaville, R. Morkuniene. Bordeaux, Kaunas 272

Change in Flux Control Coefficient of Cytochrome c Oxidase in Copper Deficient Mottled Brindled Mice

    A.V. Kuznetsov, J.F. Clark, K. Winkler, W.S. Kunz. Magdeburg, Oxford download pdf  275*

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in MELAS-Mitochondriopathy: Discussion of Possible Causal Relations

    K. Oexle, J. Oberle, C. Hübner 278

Simulation of the Flow-Force Relation of Oxidative Phosphor­ylation in Complex I Deficiency

    J.A.L. Jeneson, H.V. Westerhoff. Utrecht, Amsterdam 280

Oxygen Dependence of Cellular Respiration in Endothelial Cells: A Sensitive Toxicological Test

    R. Steinlechner, T. Eberl, R. Margreiter, E. Gnaiger. Innsbruck download pdf  283*

Endothelial Cell Cultures as a Model for Organ Preservation Studies

    T. Eberl, R. Steinlechner, W. Salvenmoser, B. Abendstein, M. Rhomberg, H. Schröcksnadel, T. Schmid, E. Gnaiger, R. Margreiter. Innsbruck download pdf  288*

The Effect of 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine on Endogenous Respiration of a Human Lymphoma Cell line (U-937)

    A. Knoblechner, R. Steinlechner, M. Schirmer, F.N. Gellerich, R. Margreiter, G. Konwalinka, E. Gnaiger. Innsbruck download pdf  294*



                                                  Part 7

               Computer Software for Bioenergetics

                       and Metabolic Control Analysis


Simultaneous Estimates of Single-Enzyme Kinetic Parameters for Multi-Enzymatic Systems Using Artificial Neural Networks

    P. Mendes, D.B. Kell. Aberystwyth 302

Design of a Software Framework for Flux Determination by 13C NMR Isotope Labelling Experiments

    W. Wiechert. Jülich 305





Oroboros. Grinzens-Innsbruck, Austria download pdf  316

Acknowledgements for Financial Support 318





Subject Index 319

Author Index 325

Addresses of Participants 329


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