O2k-Core and Modular O2k-MultiSensor System


The OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k is the modular system for high-resolution respirometry.  The O2k-Core fully supports all O2k-Modules - the Titration-Injection microPump TIP2k and O2k-MultiSensor Modules.

OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k

the modular system for high-resolution respirometry (HRR) in mitochondrial physiology and pathology.


A guided tour to the Oxygraph-2k: O2k-Catalogue

O2k - modular design

  • O2k-Core: Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titrations (SUIT), OXPHOS flux control (L, P, E), manual titrations, core system for modular add-on extension to use the TIP2k and O2k-MultiSensor Modules.
  • Titration-Injection microPump TIP2k: The O2k-TIP2k combination allows operation with programmable titration regimes, feedback control, and at steady-states, yielding a new flexibility in experimental design by combining the technical advantages of closed and open systems approaches. Automatic titrations for kinetics; feedback-controlled instrumental background tests; respiration in a closed or open system, in aerobic-anaerobic transitions or at steady-state oxygen concentrations, covering the entire physiological oxygen range and the extremes of hypoxia.
  • O2k-MultiSensor Modules: HRR combined with fluorometry (ROS production, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+, pH), potentiometry (pH, TPP+ or TPMP+ for mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+) and amperometry (NO and oxygen kinetics).
  • Core-Accessories and Auxiliary HRR-Tools are optionally available sets for high-resolution respirometry: Microsyringes, PBI-Shredder, Microbalance, and HRR-Dissection Tools.

An Integrated Systems Approach: High-Resolution Respirometry


The OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k is the unique state-of-the-art instrument for HRR - where high-resolution counts:

  • with small amounts of cells or tissue,
  • at low respiratory activities,
  • multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titrations (SUIT protocols) with resolution of changes in oxygen flux over prolonged incubation times,
  • flexibility of O2k-MultiSensor applications,
  • fast transitions at low oxygen levels,
  • stability and quality control.

High-resolution respirometry is the result of our long-term expertise in instrumental design, software development, mitochondrial physiology, clinical and pharmacological applications, and world-wide scientific cooperationThe innovative O2k-developments provide a system of highest quality and distinguish high-resolution respirometry as a method and concept.

    Today, such high resolution meets rapidly increasing demands, reflected in more than 1,700 O2k-PublicationsApplications of the O2k in leading O2k-Network Labs are the driving forces for a rapid advancement of mitochondrial physiology.  Open access to the O2k-Manual is an integral part of the concept of OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS on Gentle Science and Scientific Social Responsibility. With sharing of O2k-Protocols and implementation of quality control, the study of mitochondrial and cell respiration emerges as a quantitative science. Thus high-resolution respirometry provides the foundation for comparative mitochondrial physiology, biomedical research, translation into clinical applications, establishing quantitative functional mitochondrial diagnosis.

  • Frequently Asked Questions

The OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k sets a world-wide standard in high-resolution respirometry - for mitochondrial studies in cell physiology and pathology. Developments progress beyond oxygen.

    In contrast to merely offering an oxygen measuring device, the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k is integrated into a systems approach to high-resolution respirometry. This spans from experimental tools which are invaluable in the lab (e.g. ISS), or little aids that are crucial for tissue preparation (forceps), to information on mitochondrial respration medium (MiR06 and MiR07), substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols, and the unique O2k-Workshops.

- get O2k-Connected: O2k-Building Blocks

for beginners to advanced users to leading research laboratories ...

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OROBOROS High-Resolution Respirometry